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Richard Dawkins What if you are Wrong?

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A Built on Rock Website The Problem of Sight

His hopes that a simple form of sight would be found was realised. All the quotes material that follows is from the website home page: The Emperor Has No Clothes by Sean Pitman MD.

‘There did in fact appear to be a good number of intermediaries that linked one type of eye to another type in an evolutionary pattern.  Some of the most "simple” eyes are nothing more than spots of a small number of light sensitive cells clustered together.   This type of eye is only good for sensing light from dark.  It cannot detect an image.  From this simple eye, Darwin proceeded to demonstrate creatures with successively more and more complex eyes till the level of the complexity of the human eye was achieved.’

The following is technical and is not reproduced so that it should be understood in any depth. The point is to demonstrate that there is no such thing as a simple way to produce even the most basic form of sight.

‘Even a simple light sensitive spot is extremely complicated, involving a huge number of specialized proteins and protein systems. These proteins and systems are integrated in such a way that if one were removed, vision would cease. In other words, for the miracle of vision to occur, even for a light sensitive spot, a great many different proteins and systems would have to evolve simultaneously, because without them all there at once, vision would not occur. For example, the first step in vision is the detection of photons. In order to detect a photon, specialized cells use a molecule called 11-cis-retinal. When a photon of light interacts with this molecule, it changes its shape almost instantly. It is now called trans-retinal. This change in shape causes a change in shape of another molecule called rhodopsin. The new shape of rhodopsin is called metarhodopsin II. Metarhodopsin II now sticks to another protein called transducin forcing it to drop an attached molecule called GDP and pick up another molecule called GTP. The GTP-transducin-metarhodopsin II molecule now attaches to another protein called phosphodiesterase. When this happens, phosphodiesterase cleaves molecules called cGMPs. This cleavage of cGMPs reduces their relative numbers in the cell. This reduction in cGMP is sensed by an ion channel. This ion channel shuts off the ability of the sodium ion to enter the cell. This blockage of sodium entrance into the cell causes an imbalance of charge across the cell’s membrane. This imbalance of charge sends an electrical current to the brain. The brain then interprets this signal and the result is called vision. Many other proteins are now needed to convert the proteins and other molecules just mentioned back to their original forms so that they can detect another photon of light and signal the brain. If any one of these proteins or molecules is missing, even in the simplest eye system, vision will not occur.

The question now of course is, how could such a system evolve gradually? All the pieces must be in place simultaneously. For example, what good would it be for an earthworm that has no eyes to suddenly evolve the protein 11-cis-retinal in a small group or “spot” of cells on its head? These cells now have the ability to detect photons, but so what? What benefit is that to the earthworm? Now, let’s say that somehow these cells develop all the needed proteins to activate an electrical charge across their membranes in response to a photon of light striking them. So what?! What good is it for them to be able to establish an electrical gradient across their membranes if there is no nervous pathway to the worm’s minute brain? Now, what if this pathway did happen to suddenly evolve and such a signal could be sent to the worm’s brain. So what?! How is the worm going to know what to do with this signal? It will have to learn what this signal means. Learning and interpretation are very complicated processes involving a great many other proteins in other unique systems. Now the earthworm, in one lifetime, must evolve the ability to pass on this ability to interpret vision to its offspring. If it does not pass on this ability, the offspring must learn as well or vision offers no advantage to them. All of these wonderful processes need regulation. No function is beneficial unless it can be regulated (turned off and on). If the light sensitive cells cannot be turned off once they are turned on, vision does not occur. This regulatory ability is also very complicated involving a great many proteins and other molecules… all of which must be in place initially for vision to be beneficial.’

So it seems that the most basic form of sight is anything but simple. Evolutionists assume that the light spot is on the bottom rung of an evolutionary ladder. But is this necessarily so? Why cannot it just be one of a great range of optical solutions that bears no relation to evolution or which came first? A multi-national company may produce an astonishing range of items, from highly complex, to middle of the range right down to basic and simple. The latter are no older than any other, these basic items may even provide the company with its greatest assets. In nature cyanobacteria is a good example since its existence is vital for the production of oxygen without which life on earth could not be sustained. The existence of simple organisms within nature does not necessarily say anything beyond the fact that a Creator had determined to fill every niche environment with life.

The video below is from the Edinburgh Creation Group. Dr Marshall proves that Richard Dawkins knows less than he thinks and that he rarely gives credit to anything that does not suit his case. Dawkins has argued that if God had created the eye then why is it so badly designed. Good question! Here is a good reply.

The Problem of Sight and the Evolution of the Eye

According to Darwin the evolution of the eye, such is its complexity, was one of the great problems that needed solving.

He wrote: ‘Reason tells me, that if numerous gradations from a simple and imperfect eye to one complex and perfect can be shown to exist, each grade being useful to its possessor, as is certainly the case; if further, the eye ever varies and the variations be inherited, as is likewise certainly the case and if such variations should be useful to any animal under changing conditions of life, then the difficulty of believing that a perfect and complex eye could be formed by natural selection, though insuperable by our imagination, should not be considered as subversive of the theory.’